7 types of communication (with examples)

By Elle Holder

10 min read

7 types of communication (with examples)
Illustration by Maya Ramadhina

“What is this? This isn’t what I told you to do!”

“Yes, it is! I did exactly what you asked!”

I’m guessing that nearly everyone has had an exchange like this a time or ten in their lives. Between you and your child, you and your parent, you and your partner, you and your boss, and you and your employee. I think that covers most interpersonal relationships. 

Wherever there is communication, there’s often miscommunication. What is miscommunication? Simply put, it’s a breakdown in the exchange of information between individuals or groups. It happens when the sender’s intended message isn’t properly understood by the receiver or where there’s a discrepancy between what’s conveyed and what’s interpreted.

And it isn’t just verbal communication that’s affected. Miscommunication can happen whether the communication is verbal, nonverbal, written, or any other form of communication. In the workplace, miscommunication can lead to misunderstandings, errors, conflicts, and a complete breakdown in collaboration.

Let’s turn that around and highlight why it’s important to understand miscommunication. It can prevent conflicts, enhance collaboration, improve productivity, and more.

Verbal communication

In the typical workplace, it will be verbal communication that influences interactions, decision-making, and overall team dynamics. And while some may feel that this type of communication would be the most “plain spoken” and easy to understand, misunderstandings still happen.

There are several aspects of verbal miscommunication that need to be addressed if you want to promote clear and effective communication in your workplace. Here are three:

  • Lack of clarity in spoken words:

    • Ambiguous or vague language can create confusion
    • Using jargon or technical terms without clarification can lead to misunderstandings — especially in an environment where people don’t use this language regularly
    • Rapid speech or unclear pronunciation — know someone who mumbles? — can lead to incomprehension instead of comprehension
  • Misinterpretation of tone and intention:

    • As I’m sure you know, tone of voice plays a critical role in conveying emotions and intentions
    • Misinterpreting someone’s tone can lead to misunderstandings or misconceptions
    • Sarcasm or humor can be misread and impact the intended message
  • Language barriers:

    • Different levels of language proficiency can result in incomplete understanding
    • Cultural nuances can affect interpretation, leading to unintended meanings
    • Accents and dialects often pose challenges for people from diverse linguistic backgrounds

Nonverbal communication

Nonverbal communication also has a powerful impact when it comes to workplace interactions — it can influence how messages are perceived and relationships are formed. And just like verbal communication, it can lead to misunderstandings that can impact teamwork and organizational dynamics.

With that in mind, there needs to be a heightened awareness and sensitivity to various nonverbal cues. This awareness can help foster a workplace environment where individuals can understand and interpret the signals they are given accurately. Here are three nonverbal cues:

  • Body language and facial expressions:

    • Inconsistent body language can convey conflicting messages
    • When your verbal message doesn’t match your body language, it can cause confusion
    • Cues such as eye rolling or frowning can negatively impact perceptions, even if that’s not the speaker’s intention
  • Gestures and posture:

    • Cultural differences and gestures can lead to misunderstandings
    • Closed or defensive postures can be misinterpreted as disinterest or disagreement
    • Inappropriate gestures can convey unintended messages, affecting professional relationships
  • Eye contact and personal space:

    • Lack of eye contact can be perceived as a lack of engagement or honesty
    • Cultural variations in acceptable personal space can lead to discomfort and be a barrier to effective communication

Written communication 

Depending on what you do for work, you may do a lot of writing. Emails, reports, documentation, the list goes on. But when written communication lacks clarity or its misinterpreted, it can impact organizational efficiency and collaboration. It’s important to provide context and promote effective communication strategies that ensure your written messages convey your intended meaning accurately.

Here are three ways written communication can go wrong:

  • Ambiguity in written messages:
    • Using vague language or unclear phrasing can lead to multiple — often undesired — interpretations
    • Ambiguous instructions can result in confusion regarding expectations
    • Failing to be specific in written communication can also contribute to misunderstandings
    • Misunderstanding of tone and context in written communication:
    • Without the additional cues of facial expressions and vocal intonation, it can make it challenging to discern tones
    • Humor or sarcasm may be misconstrued — or missed entirely — without the context of visual or auditory cues
    • Choices in punctuation or emoticons can also influence the perceived emotional tone, especially in cross-generational communication 
  • Lack of clarity in written instructions or documentation:
    • Unclear instructions will often lead to errors when someone tries to fulfill the task
    • Inconsistent formatting or lack of organization and documentation can impede understanding
    • Technical or overly complex language without additional explanations can hinder comprehension

Cultural communication

Today’s workplace is globalized, and diversity has become the norm. This brings together people with distinct backgrounds, traditions, and even communication styles. While this diversity enriches the perspectives of an organization, it can also present challenges in the form of cultural miscommunication.

If you want to foster a productive work environment, it’s important to learn how to deal with these differences. Here are three key areas:

Cultural miscommunication

Cultural diversity can introduce several variations in communication styles, ranging from direct and explicit to indirect and implicit. While some cultures value assertiveness and straightforwardness, others will prioritize diplomacy and subtlety.

Whatever the differences, they can lead to misunderstandings if not acknowledged and accommodated. Becoming, and remaining aware of these variations allows for more effective cross-cultural communication and ensures that messages are conveyed and received appropriately.

Variances in nonverbal cues and gestures

Nonverbal communication, which includes gestures, facial expressions, and body language, can vary significantly across cultures. What could be considered a positive gesture in one culture may be perceived differently in another. For example, depending on cultural background, the interpretation of eye contact, handshakes, or even nodding may differ.

It’s important that all in the workplace recognize and respect cultural nuances. In doing so, you can help promote positive intercultural interactions and, just as importantly, avoid misinterpretations.

Language and translation challenges

Let’s add another layer to cultural miscommunication. Language differences and translation challenges are also a factor. We all have regional idiomatic expressions, colloquialisms, and language nuances that may not translate directly, and this can lead to misunderstandings. 

If necessary, use professional translation services or seek clarification on language-related matters. Additionally, encourage a workplace culture of open communication where leaders and employees feel comfortable when they need to seek clarification in order to bridge language gaps.

Let’s address three ways organizations can steer around the complexities of technology driven communication, leading to better workplace dynamics.

Technological communication

In the last decade, the integration of technology in the workplace has revolutionized communication. And while it’s made it more efficient and flexible it’s also introduced challenges. Organizations increasingly rely on virtual platforms and digital tools, so it’s more important than ever to understand and navigate these new challenges in order to maintain effective communication and collaboration.

Misinterpretation of text messages and emails

The brevity — let’s use as few words as possible — and the lack of visual and auditory cues in text messages and emails can result in misinterpretation. Tone, intent, and even context can be misconstrued, leading to misunderstandings. With that in mind, it’s critical that all in the workforce exercise caution and use clarity in written digital communication.

Technical glitches and misunderstandings in virtual communication

Although virtual communication platforms facilitate remote collaboration, they can be susceptible to technical glitches that could impede the flow of communication. If audio or video quality is compromised, leading to incomplete or distorted messages, naturally, misunderstandings could arise.

Consider having contingency plans in place for times when technical issues arise, utilizing alternative communication methods when necessary, as this could ease further disruptions in your virtual communication.

Overreliance on technology leading to miscommunication

It’s probably safe to say that all of us rely too heavily on digital communications tools without considering how their limitations can contribute to miscommunication. There are so many important nuances in communication, such as body language and facial expressions, that can be lost in virtual interactions.

Within your organization, try to encourage a balanced approach that incorporates both digital and face-to-face communication when possible. This can help maintain a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding among team members.

Organizational communication

How effective do you think an organization would be if no one in it communicated with each other? Most would probably agree that it’s communication that shapes the culture, productivity, and the success of an organization. However, just like any other form of communication, organizational miscommunication is a reality as well. It can lead to a range of challenges that impact both individual and collective performance, so addressing issues is essential to success.

Lack of clear communication channels within organizations

One common challenge that some organizations face is the absence of clear communication channels. When employees are unsure about where to look for information or how to communicate effectively across different levels and departments, it can lead to delays, misunderstandings, and frustration.

Establish transparent and well-defined communication channels within your organization. This will ensure that information flows smoothly and that everyone is on the same page. Ultimately, this fosters a more collaborative workplace.

Misalignment of goals and objectives

Miscommunication can manifest itself in the misalignment of goals and objectives. If organizational objectives are not clearly communicated or there’s a lack of understanding at different levels, it can result in conflicting priorities and wasted resources.

Ensure that all members of your organization are working towards a shared vision by establishing regular and transparent communication of your goals, strategies, and expectations.

Inefficient communication systems and tools

Take some time when choosing and implementing communication systems and tools, as this can have a pivotal role in the overall effectiveness of your organization. Inefficient tools can lead to delays, data inaccuracies, and missed opportunities for collaboration.

Invest in and regularly evaluate your communication tools, ensuring that they meet the evolving needs of your organization. Additionally, provide training to employees on the effective use of whatever tools you choose, as this will contribute to a more streamlined and productive communication process.

Consequences of miscommunication

It doesn’t matter what the setting is, workplace or personal, miscommunication can have far-reaching consequences that go beyond the immediate context of whatever you’re trying to communicate. It’s important that organizations understand these consequences and appreciate the impact effective communication can have on overall well-being and success — at the organizational and individual levels. Consider these consequences:

  • Conflict and misunderstandings:

    • Miscommunication is a breeding ground for conflicts as it can lead to misunderstandings and misinterpretations
    • Lack of clarity in any form of communication can result in disagreements, disputes, and tension within teams
    • Unresolved conflicts stemming from miscommunication can escalate and create a negative work environment
  • Decreased productivity and efficiency:

    • Miscommunication often leads to errors and misunderstandings, which can hinder progress and decrease overall productivity
    • Employees may spend additional time trying to clarify misunderstandings, which can divert their focus from their actual tasks
    • Inefficiencies in communication processes can lead to delays, missed deadlines, and a general decrease in work efficiency
  • Damaged relationships and trust:

    • Trust is a foundation in any relationship, and miscommunication can erode that trust
    • When individuals feel misunderstood or their words are misinterpreted it can strain relationships and damage interpersonal connections
    • It can take time to rebuild trust after a significant miscommunication incident, which can impact the overall dynamics of relationships

Strategies to improve communication

By now, it should be clear that effective communication is imperative to the success of any relationship, professional or personal. To overcome the challenges of miscommunication, individuals and organizations can develop and deploy strategic approaches to enhance their communication skills. Not only will this help facilitate understanding, it can also contribute to the creation of a more positive and collaborative environment.

  • Active listening and seeking clarification:

    • Actively listen to others, always giving your full attention to the speaker without interrupting
    • Paraphrase and summarize information to ensure understanding
    • Ask clarifying questions and address any ambiguity to confirm comprehension
    • Avoid assumptions and preconceptions, keeping an open and receptive mindset instead
  • Enhance nonverbal communication skills:

    • Pay attention to your body language, gestures, and facial expressions as they help convey messages more effectively
    • Maintain appropriate eye contact to show your engagement and attentiveness
    • Adjust your nonverbal cues based on cultural contexts to ensure cross-cultural understanding
  • Build cultural awareness and sensitivity:

    • Educate yourself and your team about different cultural communication styles and norms
    • Foster an inclusive environment that values and respects cultural diversity
    • Be aware of any potential cultural barriers and adapt communication strategies accordingly
    • Seek feedback from diverse perspectives to ensure that communication in your organization is culturally sensitive


In conclusion, miscommunication can manifest itself in various forms, which can pose challenges in both workplace and personal settings. Understanding these different types of miscommunication can help address and mitigate potential issues.

To recap, the different types of miscommunication in the workplace can include:

  • Verbal
  • Nonverbal
  • Written
  • Cultural
  • Technological
  • Organizational

Recognizing and addressing these different types of miscommunications can empower individuals and organizations to implement targeted strategies that can foster clear communication, stronger relationships, and more effective collaboration. Being proactive in your efforts to enhance effective communication can contribute to a positive work environment and successful interpersonal interactions.


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Elle Holder

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